Music Theory

Whole tone Scale:

Every note of the scale to be a whole tone apart.

Blues Scale:


C Eb F F# G Bb C

Musical Alphabet

The musical alphabet consists of only 7 letters, A through G.The A to G series repeat itself many times.

Piano keys are names for the first 7 letters of the alphabet.

Tonic-Super Tonic-Mediant-Sub Dominant-Dominant-Sub Mediant-Leading tone-Tonic

A is between the 2nd and 3rd keys of 3 black-key group

B is on the right of 3 black key group

C is on the left of 2 black key group

D is in the middle of 2 black key group

E is on the right of 2 black key group

F is on the left of 3 black key group

G is between 1st and 2nd keys of 3 black key group

Middle C

Middle C is above the bass clef and below the G clef so together those two clefs cover much of the range of most voices and instruments.

Middle C is the dividing note between the treble clef and bass clef. It is on a short line between the staffs.

Scales and Modes

A scale is simply an ascending or descending sequence of notes that progresses according to a particular formula.

A series of 8 notes that begins and ends on the same note.

Each note is designated from 1 through 8.

The scale is based on (created by) a pattern of half and whole steps.

A major scale is a succession of eight tones, whole and half steps.

The half steps occur between the third and fourth and seventh and eighth degrees or tones.

The scale is divided into two groupings of four notes, or tetra chords.

A major scale that has a different tonic than C major, will require the use of black notes.

Every major scale uses the same arrangement of 8 of them,

Use each letter only once.

The first and eight notes of the scale are the same and they called home note.

Each scale follows the same sequence of notes.

The relative minor scale starts and ends on the 6th scale degree of its relative major

Natural minor =Aeolian mode

The half steps are bet.2&3, 5&6


Harmonic minor: takes the natural minor scale and the 7th degree up a half step


Melodic Minor

Ascending:the 6th and the 7th notes are raised a half step, but coming back down,

these notes are lowered.


Descending: switching to a natural minor

The harmonic minor, the 7th tone is raised ascending and descending.

The natural minor scale is the one derived from the major scale.

The important function of the leading tones is to bring the music back to the tonic through 7 to 8.

Music is written in Happy Keys and Sad Keys.


They can be called as Medieval Mode, Church Mode

Ionian C scale

Dorian b3 b7 D scale

Phrygian b2 b3 b6 b7 E scale

Lydian #4 F scale

Mixolydian b7 G scale

Aeolian natural minor

Locrian b2b3b5b6b7